'Characteristics of Non-Fatal Abusive Head Trauma among Children in the USA, 2003–2008: Application of the CDC Operational Case Definition to National Hospital Inpatient Data' from Injury Prevention
An International Classification of Diseases code-based case definition for non-fatal abusive head trauma (AHT) in children <5 years of age was developed in March 2008 by an expert panel convened at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This study presents an application of the CDC recommended operational case definition of AHT to US hospital inpatient data to characterize the AHT hospitalization rate for children <5 years of age.
Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project from 2003 to 2008 were examined. Inspection of the NIS data resulted in the identification of an estimated 10 555 non-fatal AHT hospitalizations with 9595 classified as definite/presumptive AHT and 960 classified as probable AHT. The non-fatal AHT rate was highest among children aged <1 year (32.3 per 100 000) with a peak in hospitalizations between 1 and 3 months of age. Non-fatal AHT hospitalization rates for children <2 years of age were higher for boys (21.9 per 100 000) than girls (15.3 per 100 000). The non-fatal AHT hospitalization rate showed little variation across seasons.
To reduce the burden of AHT in the USA, a preventable public health problem, concerted prevention efforts targeting populations at risk should be implemented. This report demonstrates a model procedure for using the new CDC definition for public health surveillance and research purposes. Such findings can be used to inform parents and providers about AHT (eg, dangers of shaking, strategies for managing infant crying) as well as to monitor better the impact of prevention strategies over time.