Reports of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among adults, particularly in professional sports, are often in the news. But what about TBIs among children and youth? In 2012, an estimated 329,290 children (age 19 or younger) were treated in emergency departments (EDs) for sports and recreation-related injuries that included a diagnosis of concussion or TBI. From 2001 to 2012, the rate of ED visits for sports and recreation-related injuries with a diagnosis of concussion or TBI, alone or in combination with other injuries, more than doubled among children (age 19 or younger).
Definition: Pedestrian safety requires that children have safe places to walk and play, are properly supervised when they are in the vicinity of traffic, and learn to use caution when crossing streets.
Magnitude of the Problem: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reports that in 2008:
- Approximately 69,000 pedestrians were injured across the U.S; approximately 13,000 of those injured were age 14 and younger.
- 4,378 pedestrians were killed; 207 were children age 14 and younger.
- 43% of youth pedestrian fatalities were between the hours of 4:00 pm and 8:00 pm.
According to the American College of Emergency Physicians:
- 49% of pedestrian fatalities occurred on a Friday, Saturday, or Sunday.
- January 1st (New Year's Day) and October 31st (Halloween) are the two most deadly days of the year for pedestrians.
Prevention: Strategies for improving pedestrian safety include:
- providing safe places for children to walk and play,
- better lighting,
- clear sidewalks--including snow removal in the winter so pedestrians do not need to walk in the street, and
- traffic calming techniques.
Halloween is the deadliest day of the year for child pedestrian accidents according to a joint study that analyzed FARS data from 1990-2010. Over those 21 years, 115 child pedestrian fatalities occurred on Halloween, over double the average number of 2.6 fatalities on other days of the year. Particularly dangerous was the hour between 6:00-7:00 p.m., twilight in most states, when it’s more difficult to see children crossing the street.